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Their skin usually does not tan in males buy super levitra 80 mg overnight delivery, who inherit the gene from their mothers buy super levitra 80 mg otc. Some children may be born with Oculocutaneous: A type of albinism that affects the albinism order super levitra 80mg online, but develop some pigmentation as they grow hair order super levitra 80 mg, skin purchase super levitra 80 mg with amex, and eyes. In albinism, the body does not produce enough of a Tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous: Also known as pigment called melanin, which creates hair, skin, and eye Type 1A, this is the most severe form of albinism, color. People with this type of albinism have vision prob- some affect only the eyes, while others affect the skin and lems and sensitivity to sunlight. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS): This rare type of albinism is common in the Puerto Rican commu- nity. Approximately one person in every 1,800 people in Puerto Rico will be affected by it. People with HPS may have white, pale yellow, or brown hair, but it always is lighter than the rest of the population. Their eyes range from blue to brown, and their skin can be creamy white, yellow, or brown. A man with albinism stands beside his normally pigmented Black Locks Albinism Deafness syndrome (BADS): father. Piebaldism: Also known as partial albinism, this condition is marked by patches of white hair or lighter skin blotches on the body. Signs and symptoms Eye problems Genetic profile The lack of pigment in albinism causes abnormal Children inherit the genes for albinism from their development in the eye. The parents may have normal pigmentation, but ring around the center of the eye), which normally acts as if both the mother and father carry a recessive gene, there a filter, may let too much light into the eye. Communication between the retina (the surface inside A specific genetic abnormality causes tyrosinase- the eye that absorbs light) and the brain may also be negative oculocutaneous albinism (Type 1A). In this altered in people with albinism, causing a lack of depth type, also called “ty-neg albinism,” the body is unable to perception. These changes can lead to visual impair- convert the amino acid tyrosine into pigment. The genes ments, such as sensitivity to sunlight, near-sightedness, for producing the enzymes related to ty-neg albinism are far-sightedness, or astigmatism (a curvature in the lens located on chromosome 11 and chromosome 9. Other com- Similarly, scientists believe the gene that causes mon affects of albinism on the eyes include nystagmus, a Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is on chromosome 10. Strabismus chromosome 15 and the ocular albinism gene on the X can interfere with depth perception. Women who carry the gene for X-linked ocular Skin conditions albinism may have normal vision, but they have a one in People with albinism burn easily in the sun. This type of they have no pigmentation, or very little, they typically albinism occurs mainly in males because the gene that do not tan. Without adequate protection, they are more causes it is located on the X chromosome. Some people with albinism only have one X chromosome, genetic abnormalities on will have freckles, or large blotches of pigmentation, but this chromosome will almost always be expressed. All People with HPS may experience a variety of health racial groups, including African-Americans and Latinos problems related to their unique form of albinism. They also tested hair for the pres- HPS have trouble healing when they cut their skin ence of tyrosine, a substance in the body that produces because the disorder interferes with normal platelet func- melanin, to determine the type of albinism a person had. Platelets are a component of blood needed for clot- Today, however, most physicians believe these tests are ting. This complication may cause people with HPS to not reliable and they are not often used. It also could a sample of their blood and examine the platelets under a cause heavy menstrual bleeding and excessive bleeding microscope to look for a lack of clotting ability. It can Eye doctors may be able to identify subtle eye cause a condition called granulomatous colitis, which changes in women who carry the gene for X-linked ocu- causes abdominal cramps, intestinal bleeding and diar- lar albinism. Treatment and management Diagnosis People with albinism must shield their sensitive eyes Physicians are able to diagnose albinism by carefully from the sun with UV protected sunglasses. For Diagnostic testing usually is not necessary, but a genetic those with severe forms of albinism, however, corrective test is now available for parents who want to find out if lenses may not be able to overcome problems caused by they are carriers of ty-neg albinism.

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These have been used also essential purchase 80mg super levitra otc, as is encouraging a more distant perspec- with variable success super levitra 80 mg without a prescription. Naltrexone (a drug that blocks a narcotic Resources high and may reduce the urge to drink) and acamprosate BOOKS seem to be helpful in limiting the effects of a relapse discount super levitra 80 mg. Diagnostic and Statistical Naltrexone generic super levitra 80mg free shipping, found to produce liver damaging side ef- Manual of Mental Disorders purchase 80 mg super levitra amex. Blood-brain barrier—A membrane that lines the blood vessels in the brain, it prevents many dam- Katherine E. Certain small molecules are able to cross the barrier, in- cluding water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and alco- hol. Dependence—A state in which a person requires a steady amount of a particular drug in order to Alexander technique avoid experiencing symptoms of withdrawal. Definition Detoxification—The phase of treatment during which a patient stops drinking and is monitored The Alexander technique is a somatic method for and cared for while he or she experiences with- improving physical and mental functioning. The goal of the technique refers to a patient beginning to drink alcohol is to restore freedom and expression to the body and again after a period of avoiding it. Tolerance—A phenomenon whereby a drug user becomes physically accustomed to a particular quantity of alcohol (or dosage of a drug), and re- Origins quires ever-increasing quantities in order to obtain Frederick Matthias Alexander was born in 1869 in the same effects. He became an actor and Shake- Withdrawal—Those signs and symptoms experi- spearean reciter, and early in his career he began to suf- enced by a person who has become physically de- fer from strain on his vocal chords. ORGANIZATIONS Thus began a decade of self-observation and discov- Al-Anon, Alanon Family Group, Inc. Using as many as three mirrors to observe himself in Station, New York, NY 10018-0862. While leading the theater life, he developed chronic disorders of many types, various gynecological condi- laryngitis. While tragic for a stage career, his lingering tions, sexual failures, migraines and depressive states. Al- puter use, improvements in the posture and performance of though lacking any medical training, Alexander began school children, and improvements in vocal and dramatic to meticulously observe his manner of coordination performance among the benefits offered by the technique. After following this method of study for 10 years, Alexander concluded that modern society was Description causing individuals to severely misuse the human sys- The Alexander technique is primarily taught one-on- tem of locomotion, thus resulting in the dysfunction of one in private lessons. His experiments and tech- nique laid the groundwork in the early 1900s for good shops for special applications of the technique (e. The number of lessons varies according to the Alexander left Australia for London in 1904. Insurance coverage is not widely available, but discounts are available for partici- As of 1995, The Alexander Technique is taught in pants in some complementary care insurance plans. Pre-tax 26 countries, and there are nine affiliated societies Flexible Spending Accounts for health care cover Alexan- overseeing a profession of approximately 2,000 teach- der technique lessons if they are prescribed by a physician. Tensing arises from mental processes as well as physical, so discus- sions of personal reactions or behavior are likely to arise in the course of a lesson. At the beginning of a movement his teaching for a variety of physical and mental disorders. Alexan- Because the Alexander technique helps students im- der referred to this as misuse of the body. Nikolaas Tinbergen, in At any point in a movement, proper use can be es- his 1973 Nobel lecture, hailed the “striking improve- tablished. If the neck muscles are not over-tensed, the ments in such diverse things as high blood pressure, head will carry slightly forward of the spine, simply be- breathing, depth of sleep, overall cheerfulness and men- cause it is heavier in the front. When the head is out of tal alertness, resilience against outside pressures, and the balance in the forward direction, it sets off a series of refined skill of playing a musical instrument. It is 48 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 skillful use of these reflexes, along with reflex activity in Forceful contraction of muscles and rigid postures the feet and legs, the arms and hands, the breathing often indicate suppression of emotion. As muscles re- mechanism, and other parts of the body, that lessons in lease during or after an Alexander lesson, students may the technique aim to develop. In some cases, somatic memories surface, body was very hard to maintain, even for the short period bringing to consciousness past injury or trauma. People, cause extreme anxiety, and referrals may be made by the especially adults, have very strong tension habits associ- teacher for counseling. It may be caused by slouching in front of tele- Research & general acceptance visions or video monitors, too much sitting or driving and Alexander became well known among the intellectual, too little walking, or by tension associated with past trau- artistic, and medical communities in London, England dur- mas and injuries. Stiffening the neck after a whiplash in- ing the first half of the twentieth century. The first thing a teacher of the Alexander technique Coghill, Charles Sherrington, and Nikolaas Tinbergen.

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Allopathic treatment Resources Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) super levitra 80mg low price, BOOKS like naproxen (Naprosyn) or indomethacin (Indocin) are Brewer Jr discount 80 mg super levitra. Spondylitis As- mation generic 80mg super levitra overnight delivery, or methotrexate (Rheumatrex) purchase 80mg super levitra otc, an immune-sup- sociation of America discount 80 mg super levitra amex, 1994. Penn State University, Department of Orthopaedics and Reha- Ankylosing—When bones of a joint are fused, bilitation, M. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by unrealistic fear of weight gain, self-starvation, and PERIODICALS conspicuous distortion of body image. Anorexia nervosa was not officially classified as a ORGANIZATION psychiatric disorder until the third edition of DSM in Arthritis Foundation. In the 1970s and 1980s, anorexia was regarded as a disorder of upper- and middle-class women, but that generalization is also changing. More recent studies indicate that anorexia is increasingly common among women of all races and so- cial classes in the United States. Anorexia nervosa is a serious public health problem not only because of its rising incidence, but also because it has one of the highest mortality rates of any psychi- atric disorder. Moreover, the disorder may cause serious long-term health complications, including congestive heart failure, sudden death, growth retardation, dental problems, constipation, stomach rupture, swelling of the salivary glands, loss of kidney function, osteoporosis, anemia and other abnormalities of the blood. Causes & symptoms Anorexia is a disorder that results from the interac- tion of cultural and interpersonal as well as biological factors. While the precise cause of the disease is not known, it has been linked to the following: Social influences The rising incidence of anorexia is thought to reflect the present idealization of thinness as a badge of upper- class status as well as of female beauty. In addition, the increase in cases of anorexia includes “copycat” behav- ior, with some patients developing the disorder from imi- tating other girls. The increasing influence of the mass media in spreading planation covers all cases. Anorexia nervosa has been in- and reinforcing gender stereotypes has also been noted. This rejection is variously interpreted as a desire to remain a child, or as The risk of developing anorexia is higher among a desire to resemble men as closely as possible. Genetic and biological influences • Overemphasis on control, autonomy, and independence. Some anorexics come from achievement-oriented fami- Women whose biological mothers or sisters have the lies that stress physical fitness and dieting. Alternative treatments should serve as complemen- Male anorexics tary to a conventional treatment program. Alternative therapies for anorexia nervosa include diet and Although anorexia nervosa is still considered a dis- nutrition, herbal therapy, hydrotherapy, aromathera- order that largely affects women, its incidence in the py, Ayurveda, and mind/body medicine. Less is known about the caus- es of anorexia in males, but some risk factors are the Nutritional therapy same as for females. These include certain occupational goals and increasing media emphasis on external appear- A naturopath or nutritionist may recommend the fol- ance in men. Moreover, homosexual males are under lowing: pressure to conform to an ideal body weight that is about • avoiding sweets or baked goods 20 pounds lighter than the standard “attractive” weight • following a nutritious and well-balanced diet (when pa- for heterosexual males. One is that the disorder varies some- ic function) what in severity from patient to patient. A second factor is denial, which is regarded as an early sign of the disor- Herbal therapy der. Most anorexics deny that they are ill and are usually The following herbs may help reduce anxiety and brought to treatment by a family member. Anorexics develop emaciated bod- • lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) ies, dry or yellowish skin, and abnormally low blood pressure. The patient may Aromatherapy feel chilly or have developed lanugo, a growth of downy Essential oils of herbs such as bergamot, basil, body hair. The second step in diagnosis is measure- fused into the air, inhaled, massaged or put in bath water. DSM-IV specifies a weight loss leading to a body weight 15% below normal, Relaxation techniques with some allowance for body build and weight history. Persons with this condition some- Hypnotherapy may help resolve unconscious is- times vomit after meals because the blood supply to the sues that contribute to anorexic behavior. Two di- agnostic tests that are often used are the Eating Attitudes Treatment of anorexia nervosa includes both short- Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Amenorrhea—Absence of menstruation in a fe- Hospital treatment male who has begun to have menstrual periods. Hospitalization is recommended for anorexics with Binge eating—A pattern of eating marked by any of the following characteristics: episodes of rapid consumption of large amounts of food, usually food that is high in calories.

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